Article Glaucoma (Kala-Motia)
Glaucoma is an eye disease in which intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye in either raised or normal with optic nerve head damage and visual field loss.
Glaucoma is the second most common case of blindness in elderly age group, second only to cataract which of course when operated leads to total recovery of vision whereas glaucoma can cause permanent visual loss if not diagnosed and treated early.
Glaucoma is mainly of two types Primary open angle (POAG) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG).
POAG is more common in older age group, unlikely before 40 year of age. It’s more severe in black race than white. First degree relatives of patient’s with POAG are at increased risk of developing the disease. Diabetes mellitus and Myopia are also the risk factors in developing POAG.
Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) occurs more in middle aged woman than men (4:1ratio) particularly those with farsightedness (Hypermetropia) south-east Asians and Chinese population are at increased risk of developing PACG. Indians have 50% incidence of developing both POAG and PACG.
Treatment of glaucoma is with medical therapy, Laser therapy and if needed surgical intervention.
As it’s rightly said “Prevention is better than cure” awareness of this blinding disease in essential. Everyone above the age of 40 years should get a thorough eye check up from a glaucoma specialist. First degree relatives of glaucoma patient and those with refractive errors like myopia and hypermetropia and diesses like diabetes mellitus and heart disease should be more particular.
All optometrists who prescribe glasses to the patients should make it a point to advice those above 40 years age to get their IOP checked at regular intervals.
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